ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“

ืฆืœืฆืœื• ืืœื™ื ื• ืœืงื‘ืœืช ืคืจื˜ื™ื ื ื•ืกืคื™ื 0515544300

ื™ืฉืจืืœ ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ืžืฉื‘ืข ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ื‘ โ€“ OECD ืฉืื™ื ื” ืžืืคืฉืจืช ืœื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ื”, ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ืžื•ืชื™ืจ ื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ื”ืžืขื•ื ื™ื™ื ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ืขื ืฉืืœื” โ€“ ืื™ืš ืขื•ืฉื™ื ืืช ื–ื”? ืื—ืช ื”ืชืฉื•ื‘ื•ืช ื”ืืคืฉืจื™ื•ืช ื”ื™ื ืงื™ื•ื ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•”ืœ, ื‘ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืชื™ืจื•ืช ืงื™ื•ื ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื’ืื™ื. ื›ื™ื•ื, ืžืจื‘ื™ืช ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืขืจื‘ ืžืชื™ืจื•ืช ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ื•ื—ื•ืงื™ื ื‘ื™ื ืœืื•ืžื™ื™ื ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืืช ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืคื ื™ื ืœืจืฉื•ื ื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ืฉื ื™ืฉืื• ื‘ื—ื•”ืœ ื›ื—ื•ืง ื›ื–ื•ื’ ื ืฉื•ื™ ื‘ืžืจืฉื ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ืŸ ื•ื‘ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช.

ืื™ืกืœื ื“, ืœืขื•ืžืชื” ื”ื™ื ืื—ืช ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืžืชืงื“ืžื•ืช ื•ื”ืœื™ื‘ืจืœื™ื•ืช ื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื”ื™ื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืชืฉื™ืขื™ืช ืฉื”ื›ื™ืจื” ื‘ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื. ื‘ืจื™ืช ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืœื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ืžื•ื›ืจืช ื‘ื” ื›ื‘ืจ ืžืฉืœื”ื™ ื”ืžืื” ื”ืงื•ื“ืžืช ื•ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื’ืื™ื ืฉืื™ื ื ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ื”ืคื ื™ื™ื” ืœืžื’ื“ืจ ื›ื–ื” ื ืงื‘ืขื• ื‘ืฉื ืช 2010. ืืžื ื ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืฉืื™ื ื” ืงืจื•ื‘ื” ืœื™ืฉืจืืœ, ื›ื’ื•ืŸ ืงืคืจื™ืกื™ืŸ, ืืš ื™ืฉ ืœืฉื™ื ืœื‘ ื›ื™ ื‘ืงืคืจื™ืกื™ืŸ ื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ืจืฉืื™ื ืœื”ื›ื ืก ื‘ื‘ืจื™ืช ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืฉืื™ื ื” ืžื•ื›ืจืช ื‘ืืจืฅ ืœืฆื•ืจืš ืจื™ืฉื•ื ื‘ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื–ื”ื•ืช, ื‘ืขื•ื“ ืฉื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื”ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื”ื ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ืœื›ืœ ื“ื‘ืจ ื•ืขื ื™ื™ืŸ.

ืœืžื” ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“?

ื™ืฉ ืกื™ื‘ื•ืช ืจื‘ื•ืช ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“, ื‘ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ืขื‘ื•ืจ ื–ื•ื’ื•ืช ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื. ืจืืฉื™ืช, ืžื“ื•ื‘ืจ ื‘ืืจืฅ ืฉื‘ื” ื”ื ื•ืคื™ื ื”ื ืžืจื”ื™ื‘ื™ื โ€“ ืžืคืœื™ื ื•ืื’ืžื™ื, ื ื•ืฃ ืงื“ื•ืžื™ื, ืžืขื™ื™ื ื•ืช ื—ืžื™ื ืžื”ื‘ื™ืœื™ื, ืฉื“ื•ืช ืœื‘ื” ื•ื’ื™ื™ื–ืจื™ื ืขื ืงื™ื™ื, ื”ืื•ืจ ื”ืฆืคื•ื ื™, ืžืจื‘ื“ื™ ื•ื‘ืงืชื•ืช ื“ืฉื.

ืฉื ื™ืช โ€“ ื”ืื™ืกืœื ื“ื™ื™ื ื”ื ืื•ืœื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื”ื™ื“ื™ื“ื•ืชื™ืช ื‘ื™ื•ืชืจ ื›ืœืคื™ ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ื’ืื”. ืจืืฉืช ื”ืžืžืฉืœื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” Jรณhanna Sigurรฐardรณttir ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื’ื ื”ื™ื™ืชื” ื”ืจืืฉื•ื ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืœืง ืžื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ื’ืื”, ืžื—ื•ืฅ ืœืืจื•ืŸ, ื”ืžื›ื”ื ืช ื›ืจืืฉ ืžืžืฉืœื” ื‘ื›ืœ ื”ืขื•ืœื. ื”ื™ื ื›ื™ื”ื ื” ื‘ืชืคืงื™ื“ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉื ื™ื 2009-2013. ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื”ื™ื ื’ื ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื” ื‘ื” ืคืขืจื™ ื”ืฉื›ืจ ื‘ื™ืŸ ื ืฉื™ื ื•ื’ื‘ืจื™ื ื”ื ื”ื ืžื•ื›ื™ื ื‘ืขื•ืœื. ื›ืžื“ื™ื ื” ืคื•ืจืฆืช ื“ืจืš ื‘ืชื•ืœื“ื•ืช ื”ืงื”ื™ืœื” ื”ื’ืื” ื™ืฉ ื’ื ืกื•ื’ ืฉืœ ืืžื™ืจื” ื‘ื‘ื—ื™ืจื” ื‘ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื“ื•ื•ืงื ื‘ืžืงื•ื ืคืจืื™ ื•ืืฆื™ืœื™ ื–ื”.

ืฉืœื™ืฉื™ืช โ€“ ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ืžืงื“ืžืช ื‘ื‘ืจื›ื”ย  ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ืื–ืจื—ื™ื™ื, ืฉื•ื•ื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื, ืœืœื ืชืœื•ืช ื‘ืžื’ื“ืจ, ื ื˜ื™ื™ื” ืžื™ื ื™ืช ืื• ื“ืช. ืชื™ื™ืจื™ื ื™ื›ื•ืœื™ื ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ื” ื‘ื”ืœื™ืš ื™ื—ืกื™ืช ืคืฉื•ื˜ ื•ื‘ืœื ื”ืจื‘ื” ื‘ื™ืจื•ืงืจื˜ื™ื”.

ืžืฆืขื“ ื”ื’ืื•ื•ื” ื ืขืจืš ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื‘ื—ื•ื“ืฉ ืื•ื’ื•ืกื˜ ื•ืžืฉืชืชืคื™ื ื‘ื• ื‘ืื•ืคืŸ ืคืขื™ืœ ื›ืฉืœื™ืฉ ืžืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื”.

ืžื” ื“ืจื•ืฉ ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“?

ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื” ื”ื‘ืกื™ืกื™ืช ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื”ื™ื ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืชื ืื™ื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื: ืœืฉื”ื•ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื›ื—ื•ืง, ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ื”ื•ืœื (ืžืขืœ ืœื’ื™ืœ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื”) ื•ืœื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืงืฉื•ืจ ื‘ืงืฉืจื™ ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ืื• ื‘ืจื™ืช ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ืงื•ื“ืžืช. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื˜ื•ืคืก ื‘ืงืฉื” ื—ืชื•ื.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœืขืžื•ื“ ื‘ืชื ืื™ ื”ืจืืฉื•ืŸ, ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ ื‘ืชื•ืงืฃ ืฉืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืชืคื•ื’ื” ืฉืœื• ืจื—ื•ืง ื—ืฆื™ ืฉื ื” ืœืคื—ื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื ื”ื—ื–ืจื” ื”ืžืฉื•ืขืจ ืืจืฆื”. ืื™ืŸ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืฆื˜ื™ื™ื“ ื‘ื•ื•ื™ื–ื” ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืœื”ื›ื ืก ืœืื™ืกืœื ื“. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื›ื“ืื™ ืœืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื”ื˜ื™ืกื” ืœื”ื•ื›ื—ืช ื–ืžืŸ ื”ื›ื ื™ืกื” ืœืืจืฅ ื•ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ื›ืจื˜ื™ืก ื—ื–ื•ืจ ืœื”ื•ื›ื—ืช ืฉื”ื•ืช ื—ื•ืงื™ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื•ื—ื•ืกืจ ื›ื•ื•ื ืช ื”ืฉืชืงืขื•ืช ืฉื.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื— ื›ื™ ืืชื ื‘ื’ื™ืœ ืžืชืื™ื ืœื—ืชื•ื ื” ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืœื™ื“ื” ืžืงื•ืจื™ืช.

ื›ื™ื•ื•ืŸ ืฉืื™ื ื›ื ืชื•ืฉื‘ื™ ืื™ืกืœื ื“ (ืื• ื™ืชืจ ื”ืžื“ื™ื ื•ืช ื”ืกืงื ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช) ืชืืœืฆื• ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื— ืœืžื•ืกื“ื•ืช ื”ืฉืœื˜ื•ืŸ ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ื™ื ื›ื™ ืื™ื ื›ื ืงืฉื•ืจื™ื ื‘ืงืฉืจื™ื ื–ื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืงื•ื“ืžื™ื. ืœืฆื•ืจืš ื›ืš ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืฆื˜ื™ื™ื“ ื‘ืชืขื•ื“ื” ื”ืžืขื™ื“ื” ืขืœ ืžืฆื‘ื›ื ื”ื–ื•ื’ื™ ืžื”ืืจืฅ โ€“ ืชืžืฆื™ืช ืจื™ืฉื•ืช ืžืžืจืฉื ื”ืื•ื›ืœื•ืกื™ืŸ. ืขืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื” ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื“ื›ื ื™ืช โ€“ ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ื”ื•ืฆืื” ืฆืจื™ืš ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ืขื“ 8 ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื”ืžื™ื•ืขื“. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ืชืฆื˜ืจื›ื• ืœื”ื’ื™ืฉ ื˜ื•ืคืก ืจื™ืฉื•ื ืžืœื ื•ื—ืชื•ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื›ื ื•ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ื™ ืขื“ื™ื ืฉื’ื ื”ื ื‘ื ื™ ืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื•ืžืขืœื”.

ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื ื™ื” ื–ื•ื’ ืื• ืฉื ื™ื”ื ื”ื™ื• ื‘ืงืฉืจื™ื ื–ื•ื’ื™ื™ื ืžื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืงื•ื“ืžื™ื, ื™ื”ื™ื” ืขืœื™ื”ื ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืขื™ื“ื•ืช ืขืœ ืกื™ื•ื ืงืฉืจื™ื ืงื•ื“ืžื™ื ืืœื•: ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื’ื™ืจื•ืฉื™ืŸ, ืคื˜ื™ืจื”, ื‘ื™ื˜ื•ืœ ื‘ืจื™ืช ื–ื•ื’ื™ื•ืช ื•ื›ื“ื•ืžื”. ื‘ืžืงืจื” ืฉืœ ืคื˜ื™ืจื” ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืžืœื‘ื“ ืชืขื•ื“ืช ืคื˜ื™ืจื” ื’ื ื”ื•ื›ื—ื” ื›ื™ ื ื›ืกื™ ื”ื ืคื˜ืจ ื—ื•ืœืงื• ื‘ื™ืŸ ื™ื•ืจืฉื™ื•.

ื˜ื•ืคืก ื‘ืงืฉื” ื—ืชื•ื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœื”ืฉื™ื’ ื›ืืŸ. ืขืœ ื”ื˜ื•ืคืก ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื—ืชื•ื ืขืœ ื™ื“ื™ ืฉื ื™ ืขื“ื™ื ื‘ื ื™ 18 ื•ืžืขืœื”, ืื—ื“ ืœื›ืœ ืื—ื“ ืžื‘ื ื•ืช ืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ื•ื’. ื”ืขื“ื™ื ืื™ื ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื”ื™ื•ืช ื ื•ื›ื—ื™ื ื‘ื˜ืงืก ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืขืฆืžื•, ืื•ืœื ื”ื ื—ื™ื™ื‘ื™ื ืœื—ืชื•ื ืขืœ ืžืกืžืš ื”ื‘ืงืฉื” ื‘ืฆื™ืจื•ืฃ ืชืืจื™ืš ื”ืœื™ื“ื” ืฉืœื”ื ืœื”ื•ื›ื™ื— ื›ื™ ื”ื ืื›ืŸ ื‘ื ื™ ืฉืžื•ื ื” ืขืฉืจื” ื•ืžืขืœื”.

ืจืฉื™ืžืช ืจืฉืžื™ ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื›ืœ ืจื—ื‘ื™ ืื™ืกืœื ื“.

ืื™ืš ืžื›ื™ื ื™ื ืืช ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ื ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ื™ื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“?

ื”ื“ืจื™ืฉื” ื”ื™ื ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ืชืžื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืฆื™ืจื•ืฃ ืชืจื’ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ืœืฉืคื” ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ืื• ืœืื—ืช ื”ืฉืคื•ืช ื”ืกืงื ื“ื™ื ื‘ื™ื•ืช. ืืช ื›ืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ื ”ืœ (ืชืจื’ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ + ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช) ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืคืงื™ื“ ื‘ืžืฉืจื“ื™ ื”ืจืฉื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื‘ื• ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืชืขืจืš ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœืคื ื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืžื™ื•ืขื“.

ื›ื“ื™ ืœื”ืงืœ ืขืœ ืื ืฉื™ื ื”ื‘ืื™ื ืœื”ื™ื ืฉื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ืืš ืื™ื ื ื’ืจื™ื ื‘ื”, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืฉืœื•ื— ื‘ื“ื•ืืœ ืื• ื‘ืคืงืก ืขื•ืชืงื™ื ืฉืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืชืงื•ืคืช ืฉืœื•ืฉืช ื”ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช, ืื•ืœื ื™ืฉ ืœื”ืคืงื™ื“ ืืช ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช ื‘ืžืฉืจื“ื™ ื”ืจืฉื ืœืคื—ื•ืช ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื”.

ื‘ืžื™ื“ื” ื•ื–ื•ื’ ืคืกืคืก ืืช ื”ืžื•ืขื“ื™ื ื”ืœืœื• (ืฉืœื•ืฉื” ืฉื‘ื•ืขื•ืช ืœื”ืฆื’ืช ืขื•ืชืงื™ื ื•ื—ืžื™ืฉื” ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ื”ืคืงื“ืช ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช) โ€“ ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืชื™ื—ืฉื‘ ื›ืžื‘ื•ื˜ืœืช ื•ื™ื”ื™ื” ืฆื•ืจืš ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ืชืืจื™ืš ื—ื“ืฉ.

ืขืœ ืžื ืช ืฉื”ืจืฉื•ื™ื•ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ื™ื•ื›ืœื• ืœื”ืชื™ื™ื—ืก ืœืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ื”ืžืงื•ืจื™ื•ืช, ื™ืฉ ืœืฆืจืฃ ืืœื™ื”ืŸ ืขื•ืชืงื™ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืœืื ื’ืœื™ืช. ืžืฉืžืขื•ืช ื”ื“ื‘ืจ ื”ื™ื ื›ื™ ืœื ืžืกืคื™ืง ืชืจื’ื•ื ื‘ืœื‘ื“ ืฉืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื•ืช ืืœื ื™ืฉ ืฆื•ืจืš ืœื”ืฆื™ื’ ื’ื ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืจืฉืžื™ืช ืฉืœ ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ืฉืœ ืื™ืžื•ืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื•ื“ื™ื•ืงื•. ื‘ื ื•ืกืฃ, ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื—ืชื™ื ืืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื”ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ ื‘ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืืคื•ืกื˜ื™ืœ ืžืžืฉืจื“ ื”ืžืฉืคื˜ื™ื ื”ืžืขื™ื“ื” ื›ื™ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ื”ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ืจืฉืžื™ ืžื˜ืขื ืžื“ื™ื ืช ื™ืฉืจืืœ ืฉืจืฉืื™ ืœืืžืช ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื.

ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืฉื™ืจื•ืชื™ ืชืจื’ื•ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ ื”ื“ื•ืื’ ื”ืŸ ืœื ื•ืฉื ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื•ื”ืŸ ืœื ื•ืฉื ื—ืชื™ืžืช ื”ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ืืฆืœ ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืžื‘ืฆืขื™ื ืชืจื’ื•ืžื™ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืœืื ื’ืœื™ืช. ื™ืฉื ื ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ื ื™ื™ื ืฉืืฃ ื›ื•ืœืœื™ื ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ื”ื—ืชืžืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื‘ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืืคื•ืกื˜ื™ืœ ื•ืืฃ ื›ืืœื• ืฉื™ืฉืžื—ื• ืœื”ืขื ื™ืง ืืช ื”ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœืœื ืฆื•ืจืš ื”ื’ืขื” ืœืžืฉืจื“ื™ ื”ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ืžืžืฉ. ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืฉืœื•ื— ืกืจื™ืงื” ืฉืœ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื” ืœื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ ื‘ื“ื•ืืœ ื•ืœืงื‘ืœ ื—ื–ืจื” ืืช ื”ืชืจื’ื•ื ื”ื—ืชื•ื, ืขื ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืืคื•ืกื˜ื™ืœ, ื‘ืืžืฆืขื•ืช ืฉืœื™ื— ืœื‘ื™ืช ื‘ืขืœื™ ื”ืชืขื•ื“ื”.

ื™ืฉื ื• ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ื ื•ืกืฃ ืฉืœ ื—ื‘ืจื” ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ืฉื ืงืจืืช ืคื™ื ืง ืื™ืกืœื ื“ ืฉื™ื›ื•ืœื” ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื‘ื”ืฆื’ืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื•ื”ืคืงื“ืชื ืืฆืœ ื”ืจืฉื ื”ืžืงื•ืžื™ ื•ื‘ื›ืš ืœื—ืกื•ืš ืœื–ื•ื’ ื”ื ื™ืฉื ืืช ื”ืฉื”ื•ืช ื‘ืช ื—ืžืฉืช ื”ื™ืžื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืžื•ืขื“ ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื”.

ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืื™ืกืœื ื“ื™ืช

ืขื•ืจืš ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืื™ืกืœื ื“ื™ืช ืื™ื ื• ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืื™ืฉ ื“ืช ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืœื ื‘ื”ื›ืจื— ืฉื•ืคื˜ ืื• ืจืืฉ ืขื™ืจ. ื’ื ืจืืฉ ืฉื‘ื˜ (ืฆ’ื™ืคื˜ืืŸ) ืฉืœ ื’ื•ื“ื™ ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™ ื™ื•ื›ืœ ื”ืฉื™ื ืืชื›ื ื•ืืคื™ืœื• ืคืขื™ืœ ื”ื•ืžื ื™ืกื˜ื™. ื‘ืฉื ื™ื ื”ืื—ืจื•ื ื•ืช, ืจื‘ื™ื ื‘ื•ื—ืจื™ื ื‘ื˜ืงืก ืคื’ืื ื™ ืฉืœ รsatrรบย  – ื˜ืงืก ื—ื•ืงื™ ืจืง ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“, ื“ื ืžืจืง ื•ื ื•ืจื‘ื’ื™ื”. ื”ื“ืช ืฉืœ ื”ื ื•ืจื“ื™ื™ื ื”ืขืชื™ืงื™ื ืืกืื˜ืจื• ื“ื•ื’ืœืช ื‘ืงื‘ืœื”, ื“ืจื›ื™ ืฉืœื•ื ื•ื›ื‘ื•ื“. ื”ืืœื™ื ืื™ื ื ืžื•ื—ืœื™ื ื•ื–ื” ืื™ื ื• ืชืคืงื™ื“ื. ืขืœ ืคื™ ื”ืžืกื•ืจืช, ืขืฅ ื”ื—ื™ื™ื ืฉื‘ื‘ืกื™ืกื• ื ืžืฆืื•ืช ืฉืœื•ืฉ ืื—ื™ื•ืช ืฉื˜ื•ื•ืช ืืช ื—ื•ื˜ื™ ื”ื–ืžืŸ: ื”ืขื‘ืจ ื”ื”ื•ื•ื” ื•ื”ืขืชื™ื“, ื•ื”ืื“ื ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื”ืฉืคื™ืข ืจืง ืขืœ ื˜ื•ื•ื™ืช ื—ื•ื˜ื™ ื”ืขืชื™ื“. ืขืœ ื”ืื“ื ืœื—ื™ื•ืช ืขื ื”ื—ืœื˜ื•ืชื™ื•, ืœื˜ื•ื‘ ื•ืœืจืข. ื”ืคื’ืื ื™ื™ื ืื™ื ื ืžื’ื™ื™ืกื™ื ืœืฉื•ืจื•ืชื™ื”ื ืื‘ืœ ืฉืžื—ื™ื ืœืชืช ืฉื™ืจื•ืช ืœื–ืจื™ื ื•ื›ืืœื• ืฉืื™ื ื ืคื’ืื ื™ื™ื.

ื”ื˜ืงืก ื”ืคื’ืื ื™ ื›ื•ืœืœ ื”ื“ืœืงืช ืืฉ, ื”ื—ืœืคืช ื ื“ืจื™ื ืชื•ืš ื”ื—ื–ืงืช ื—ื™ืฉื•ืง ื”ื‘ื˜ื—ื” ื•ืฉืชื™ื™ืช ืžื™ื ืžืงืจืŸ ืฉืคืข ืชื•ืš ืฉื™ืชื•ืฃ ื‘ื ื•ืช ืื• ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ื•ื’, ื”ื—ื‘ืจื™ื ื•ื”ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉืื™ืชื. ื”ื˜ืงืก ื™ื›ื•ืœ ืœื›ืœื•ืœ ื”ื—ืœืคืช ื˜ื‘ืขื•ืช ืื• ืืช ื”ืงืฉื™ืจื” ื”ืžืกื•ืจืชื™ืช ืฉืœ ื™ื“ื™ ื‘ื ื™ ื”ื–ื•ื’ ื‘ืกืจื˜ ืื“ื•ื.

ื›ืžื” ื“ื‘ืจื™ื ืœืคื ื™ ืฉื—ื•ื–ืจื™ื ืืจืฆื”

ืืช ื˜ืงืก ื”ื—ืชื•ื ื” ืขืฆืžื• ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืืจื’ืŸ ืœืœื ื˜ืงืก ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช Hlรญรฐarsmรกri 1, Kรณpavogur (ืขืœื•ืช ื”ื˜ืงืก 10,000 IKR) ื‘ืจื™ืงื™ืื•ื•ื™ืง, ื‘ื›ืœ ื™ื•ื ื—ื•ืœ (ืฉื ื™-ืฉื™ืฉื™) ื‘ื™ืŸ ื”ืฉืขื•ืช 13:20-15:00, ื›ืœ ืขืฉืจื™ื ื“ืงื•ืช. ื‘ืขืœื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคืช ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ื•ืข ื–ืžื ื™ื ืื• ืžืงื•ืžื•ืช ืฉื•ื ื™ื ืœืงื™ื•ื ื”ื˜ืงืก. ื›ื“ืื™ ืœื–ื›ื•ืจ ื›ื™ ื‘ืงื™ืฅ, ื’ื ื‘ืืžืฆืข ื”ืœื™ืœ ื™ืฉ ืื•ืจ ื™ื•ื ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“, ื•ื›ื™ ื’ื ื‘ืงื™ืฅ ืจืฆื•ื™ ืœื”ืฆื˜ื™ื™ื“ ื‘ืžืขื™ืœ ื—ื ื•ื‘ื’ื“ื™ื ืชื—ืชื•ื ื™ื ื˜ืจืžื™ื™ื ืื ื—ื•ืฉื‘ื™ื ืœืงื™ื™ื ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื‘ื—ื™ืง ื”ื˜ื‘ืข.

ืื—ืจื™ ื”ื˜ืงืก, ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืงื‘ืœ ืืช ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช:

รžjรณรฐskrรก รslandsย (Registers Iceland)
Borgartรบn 21
105 Reykjavรญk
Iceland

 

Tel.:ย  +354 515 5300 ย – ย E-mail:ย ย [email protected]ย  – ย www.skra.is

ืœืคื ื™ ื”ื—ื–ืจื” ืืจืฆื”, ื™ืฉ ืœื”ื—ืชื™ื ืืช ืชืขื•ื“ืช ื”ื ื™ืฉื•ืื™ืŸ ื‘ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืืคื•ืกื˜ื™ืœ ืฉืœ ืžืฉืจื“ ื”ื—ื•ืฅ ื”ืื™ืกืœื ื“ื™ ื‘ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช:

Raudararstigur 25ย Reykjavรญk

Tel.:ย 545 9900ย  ย – ย E-mail:ย ย [email protected], [email protected]ย  –

https://www.apostille.org/project/apostille-iceland/

 

ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“

ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื—ื“ ืžื™ื ื™ืช ื‘ืื™ืกืœื ื“

  • ืžื—ื™ืจ ืžื•ื–ืœ
  • ืชืจื’ื•ื ืชืžืฆื™ื•ืช ืจื™ืฉื•ื
  • ื—ื•ืชืžืช ื ื•ื˜ืจื™ื•ืŸ
  • ื—ื•ืชืžืช ืืคื•ืกื˜ื™ืœ
  • ืžืฉืœื•ื— ืžื”ื™ืจ
  • ืขืœื•ืช ืžื•ื–ืœืช ืœื’ื•ืœืฉื™ื ื‘ืืชืจย 

ืœืงื‘ืœืช ื”ืฉืจื•ืช ื™ืฉ ืœืžืœื ืืช ื”ื˜ื•ืคืก


    ืฉื + ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉืœ ืฆื“ ื ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื›ืžื• ืฉืจืฉื•ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ (ื—ื•ื‘ื”)

    ืฉื + ืžืฉืคื—ื” ืฉืœ ืฆื“ ื‘ ื‘ืื ื’ืœื™ืช ื›ืžื• ืฉืจืฉื•ื ื‘ื“ืจื›ื•ืŸ (ื—ื•ื‘ื”)

    ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ: (ื—ื•ื‘ื”)

    ืฆื™ืœื•ื ืชืžืฆื™ืช ืจื™ืฉื•ื ืฆื“ ื(ื’ื ืฆื™ืœื•ื ืžื”ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ื–ื” ืžืฆื•ื™ืŸ)

    ืฆื™ืœื•ื ืชืžืฆื™ืช ืจื™ืฉื•ื ืฆื“ ื‘

    ืงื•ื‘ืฅ ื ื•ืกืฃ

    ืงื•ื‘ืฅ ื ื•ืกืฃ

    ืžืกืคืจ ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ ืœื‘ื™ืจื•ืจื™ื

    ื›ืชื•ื‘ืช ืœืฉืœื™ื—ืช ืžืกืžื›ื™ื (ืœื ื ื™ืชืŸ ืœืฉืœื•ื— ืœืžืงื•ื ื”ืขื‘ื•ื“ื”) ื•ื‘ืงืฉื•ืช ืžื™ื•ื—ื“ื•ืช

    ืชื”ืœื™ืš ื”ื›ื ืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื

    ืชื•ื›ืœื• ืœืฉืœื•ื— ืœื ื•ย  ืืช ื”ืžืกืžื›ื™ื ื“ืš ื”ื˜ื•ืคืก ืื• ื“ืจืš ื”ืžื™ื™ืœ:ย [email protected]

    ืื• ื‘ื˜ืœืคื•ืŸ 0515544300

    ื•ืื ื—ื ื• ื ื™ืฆื•ืจ ืื™ืชื›ื ืงืฉืจ ื‘ื”ืงื“ื ืœื”ืฉืœืžืช ื”ืชื”ืœื™ืš

    ื ืฉืžื•ืจ ืขืœย ืงืฉืจ

    ืฆื•ืจ ืงืฉืจ ื—ืชื•ื ื” ื‘ืงืคืจื™ืกื™ืŸ

    ื™ืฉ ืœื›ื ืฉืืœื•ืช ื ื•ืกืคื•ืช?

    ืขื“ื›ื•ื ื™ื ืฉืฆืจื™ืš ืœืขืฉื•ืช ื‘ืืชืจ

    ื ืฉืžื— ืœืขื–ื•ืจ ื‘ืžื” ืฉืืคืฉืจ!

      ื”ืฉื ืฉืœืš (ื—ื•ื‘ื”)

      ื”ืื™ืžื™ื™ืœ ืฉืœืš: (ื—ื•ื‘ื”)

      ื ื•ืฉื

      ื”ื”ื•ื“ืขื” ืฉืœืš

      ื”ื›ื•ืชื‘ ืื™ื ื• ื ื•ืฉื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ืขื‘ื•ืจ ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื‘ืจืขื™ื•ื ื•ืช, ื“ื•ื’ืžืื•ืช ื•ืžื™ื“ืข ืฉื‘ืžื“ืจื™ืš. ื”ืฉื™ืžื•ืฉ ื”ื•ื ื‘ืื—ืจื™ื•ืช ื”ืงื•ืจื ื‘ืœื‘ื“

      ื›ืชื™ื‘ืช ืชื’ื•ื‘ื”